An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism.
Page 90 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design. The National Academies Press. In this chapter, we review the complex landscape of scholarship on learning in a way that highlights concepts relevant to the design of citizen science for learning.
The concepts lay the groundwork for Chapter 5, which delves into how citizen science can advance specific science learning outcomes. This discussion will set the stage for a description of some of the central cognitive processes involved in learning generally. We conclude the chapter with descriptions of some of the specific kinds of learning that happen in science content domains.
Although we describe the different theoretical perspectives on how learning occurs, contemporary scholars of learning generally recognize that learning is a complicated, interactive phenomenon. Individuals are nested within communities that are nested within societies, and these contexts matter for how knowledge is acquired and engaged.
Different theories of learning are not mutually exclusive, and can be used in complementary ways to attend to the multifaceted nature of learning, even in a single environment like a citizen science project. Moreover, participants in citizen science project are also learning in a wide variety of other contexts and may even participate in multiple citizen science projects.
It is helpful in both design of citizen science projects and in research about learning to remember that all learning is happening with a larger ecosystem of citizen science opportunities and other science education experiences, both formal and informal. This chapter is not intended as a comprehensive review of scholarship on learning; rather, we attempt to lay out central principles of learning, particularly with respect to science, for readers new to the field of science learning.
As we discuss the processes of learning both in general and in science later in this chapter, the committee recognizes that these processes are aimed at characterizing what the individual learner knows and is able to do.
In order to explain why and how people think and act in the world the way they do, scholars employing sociocultural perspectives often study and characterize how people in places interact with each other towards goals and use materials to mediate and support their interactions and goals.
Culture, in this sense, is both historically constituted and dynamically changing through participation in social practices and making sense of life. More simply put, all people explore, narrate, and build knowledge about their worlds, but they do so in varied ways that are dynamically linked to particular contexts and depend on interaction with others e.
National Research Council, ; Bang et al. Sociocultural perspectives have expanded our foundational knowledge of human learning as well as led to important practice- based innovations in learning environments. While we acknowledge that much of the research on specific processes of learning mentioned in this chapter are concerned with individual learners, the committee believes that given the explicitly social nature of many citizen science projects, it is critically important to consider learning in citizen science through a sociocultural lens.
First, as we discussed in Chapter 3: Piaget, Carey, Vosniadou, Chi, Posner, et al. Second, learners actively construct their own understanding of the world; they are not passive recipients of knowledge, and transmitting knowledge is not equivalent to learning.
Later in this chapter, we will discuss this principle in relationship to conceptual development, and how educators must actively engage learners in the process of developing conceptual understandings of science. Finally, some learning objectives in science are more challenging to achieve than others, so more intentional supports for learning are necessary.
We will discuss this in the context of citizen science in Chapter 5, as we review how the existing literature describes different learning outcomes in citizen science. It is situated in, and dependent upon, social interactions among people as well as their social and cultural tools and practices.
In the following discussions of learning processes and kinds of learning in science, the committee emphasizes this sociocultural perspective on learning while also considering the insights gained from many decades of research from other theoretical perspectives.
We begin our discussion of learning by considering the processes of learning in individuals; specifically, the processes of memory, activity, and developing expertise. Then, the chapter narrows in on the specifics of science learning, including learning disciplinary content; using scientific tools; understanding and working with data; development of motivation, interest, and identity; and development of scientific reasoning, epistemological thinking, and the nature of science.
Because the charge of this study is specific to science learning, wherever possible the committee elects to discuss how these learning processes happen in the context of the domain of science. It is critical to note that these processes are not unique to science learning. Indeed, much of the general scholarship on learning has emerged in relationship to other academic disciplines, each with their own scholarly research traditions.
The Role of Memory in Learning Learning depends fundamentally on memory. Well over a century of research has delved into the properties of human memory in action, detailing the remarkable role memory plays in both developing and sustaining learning over time.
From this research, there are several themes that are helpful to keep in mind. Durable, long-term learning is best accomplished by repeated experience with the material one seeks to remember.
That is, the same amount of time invested in studying material one wants to remember will generally result in longer-lasting learning if it is distributed over time rather than performed all at once.
Learning can be enhanced by strategies that promote cognitive engagement with and elaboration of the material one is attempting to learn. Knowledge and skills that are densely interconnected to other information have better storage strength in long-term memory and also have links to more potential retrieval cues.
Examples of beneficial strategies include such activities as concept mapping, note-taking, self-explanation, and representing material in multiple formats e. Learning researchers Michelene Chi and Ruth Wylie have proposed a framework that differentiates cognitive engagement during learning into four modes: Constructive engagement is defined as activities where learners generate some kind of additional externalized product beyond the information they were originally provided with, such as generating inferences and explanations or constructing a new representational format e.
Interactive engagement goes one step further and occurs when two or more partners peers, teacher and learner, or intelligent computer agent and learner together contribute to a mutual dialogue in a constructive mode.And in Carey v.
Population Services International, U.S. , If there be time to expose through discussion the falsehood and fallacies, to avert the evil by the processes of education, the remedy to be applied is more speech, not enforced silence.
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I know that you pointed out that the Book of Mormon is a different situation for a number of reasons, but I think our approach to scripture is too often a “package deal” as well, and the Book of Mormon itself compounds the possible problems you point out. Mark Drozdowski offers 50 of the former, mostly about things that perplex him about higher ed.
So many questions, so few answers. 50 questions about higher education (essay).
saying, "In today’s economy, higher education is no longer a luxury for the privileged few, but a necessity for individual economic opportunity and America’s competitiveness in the global economy.
At a time when jobs can go anywhere in the world, skills and education . What is the higher education and what is the purpose of it? Most of the students after finishing the high school go to the college in order to get a degree, to become more smarter, to get well-paid salary and etc.
College helps you to earn a degree to get a better job and shape your identit.