History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
Analysis "To explicate" something is, in the most general sense of the term, to spell out its implications. Thus the noun "explication," in the corresponding sense, is, in the first instance, the process of spelling out the implications of something. And derived from this, in turn, is the sense of "explication" that refers to the product of this process: Explication, in other words, is a kind of explanation note 1.
But usually the thing whose implications are being explicated is a text, or something that is being treated as a text. Or we might note that theologians, historically, have disagreed on how to explicate this or that passage of the Bible.
But in ordinary usage we probably would say, of a doctor who manages to diagnose a patient's symptoms, that he has explained them, rather than that he has "explicated" them though we could sensically stretch the term "explicate" to cover this if we wanted to and there was some special reason for doing so.
In this sense, any time one draws an inference from any explicit detail of the work, one is "doing explication. From the phrasing Critical analysis of the implication of a narrator's or character's remarks, one understands that the speaker is being ironic. From the realization that two characters or two settings or whatever stand in the relation of foil, or of equivalent "double" to one another, one notices something unstated about the one on the basis of what has noticed stated or unstated about the other.
It may be that this interpretive activity is embedded in an essay whose overall organization is some form of logical hierarchy of claims; but whenever one is drawing out implications, one is doing explication in this broad, general sense.
But there is another sense of the term that has arisen in literary critical discourse, that is much more specific, and that takes into account the organization of the interpretive activity, or at least of its presentation.
In this more specific sense of the term, "explication" involves going through Critical analysis of the implication of explicit text, from beginning to end as a whole, or within a sectionand systematically spelling out what the given string of explicit details, or events, or episodes, or scenes, or stanzas, brings to mind to an appropriately engaged reader's mind.
When this is done, the resulting interpretation, the interpretive discourse whether oral or written will be organized chronologically rather than logically. That is, the organization of an explication, considered as a particular type of critical discourse, is taken over from the work under discussion.
And if we are dealing with fiction, plays, films, and most poems, the order of explicit details, events, episodes, that constitutes them is typically going to be temporal. The reason for this is that time is the mode of experience, and works of literature are generally designed, first and foremost, to convey some experience.
If we then undertake to unpack "on the fly" the unfolding of the implicit dimensions of that unfolding experience, the order of our own observations will be dictated by the order of the facts as presented in the work that is seeking to sponsor or convey that experience. This is something that we do lots in class, though our doing of it is typically confined to a passage, rather than carried through over the entire text.
But it is not what will be asked for in most of the writing you will be called upon to do in our course. Here, the job will be something that, for lack of a better term, we will call "analysis. The internal grammatical structure of these phrases is instructive.
In the first, the direct object of the verb is "experience," and the concepts "clarifiable" and "intelligible" are adjectives that modify are subordinate to that notion.
Writers select and arrange the details that, together, constitute the experience they want to convey in such a manner as to suggest what the significance of it is, or may be supposed to be. But because they are interested in getting us vicariously to undergo that experience, the overall organizational framework within which these details will be presented will be chronological even if interrupted by flashbacks, flashforwards, or commentarybecause the mode of experience is temporal.
That is, what we call experience is something that by its very nature flows from moment to moment. Except in very special circumstances note 2for a fiction writer to organize the text as an argument or exposition, rather than as a narrative, is to be at cross-purposes with himself.
Like a carpenter trying to drive nails with a saw, this would be to pick the wrong tool for the job. Or to return to the metaphor we began with: In the second, the verbal concept "clarify" governs the direct object, "some particular aspect of the significance of that experience.
Now significance is constituted by a network of implications. And if we want systematically to clarify some particular aspect of that significance, what will concern us will be some discernable hierarchy of implications that fall under that aspect.
And since the relationships that constitute a hierarchy of implications will be logical, the organizational strategy appropriate to clarifying them will be expository-argumentative rather than narrative. Of course, we will constantly need to be referring to the explicit facts of the story, but when we do, we will be taking them up as evidence for our interpretive claims.
Like a carpenter trying to cut a board with a claw hammer, we are taking up the wrong tool for the job. If we are doing analysis, for us to adopt the organizational framework of the work we are analyzing is to let what is for us the tail wag what is for us the dog. For useful pointers on devising an essay organized around a logically integrated hierarchy of claims, see Craig Waddell's "Threads of Thought: Thesis Development in Analytical Writing.
This is one of a number of helpful handouts on-line at the Rensselaer Writing Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. On the minimal requirements for a logical framework of organization in an analytical paper, see "Developing an Outline," which is one of over a hundred handouts -- Resources for Writers -- made available at the Purdue University On-Line Writing Lab.
For an excellent set of pointers by an obviously experienced reader of undergraduate papers, see the memo "Writing Pages of Literary Analysis" by Seamus Cooney at the University of Northern Michigan.Critical Features From an Instructional Design Perspective “Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an without an accurate analysis of the instructional problem.
In addition to understanding and analyzing the problem, a second core. Predicting the unpredictable: critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity Julia A.
Mossbridge 1*, Patrizio Tressoldi 2, Jessica Utts 3, John A. Ives 4, Dean Radin 5 and Wayne B. Jonas 4. A Critical Analysis of Critical Loss Analysis Daniel P. O’Brien and Abraham L. Wickelgren* May 23, Abstract Critical loss analysis is often used to argue that firms with large margins have more to lose from implication of economic theory that profit-maximizing competitors that do not coordinate their.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence. Writing Critical Analysis Papers1 A critical analysis paper asks the writer to make an argument about a particular book, essay, movie, etc.
The goal is two fold: one, identify and explain the argument that the author is making, and two, • Implication/Policy relevance questions – What are the implications of this argument? Are. Mar 21, · To write a critical analysis, first introduce the work you’re analyzing, including information about the work’s author and their purpose in writing it.
As part of the introduction, briefly state your overall evaluation of the work%(89).